Note to myself before it disappears from my head:
"Graphical models are, in part, a way of escaping from this impasse.
The basic idea is as follows. You have a bunch of variables, and you want to represent the causal relationships, or at least the probabilistic dependencies, between them. You do so by means of a graph. Each node in the graph stands for a variable. If variable A is a cause of B, then an arrow runs from A to B. If A is a cause of B, we also say that A is one of B's parents, and B one of A's children. If there is a causal path from A to B, then A is an ancestor of B, and B is a descendant of A. If a variable has no parents in the graph, it is exogenous, otherwise it is endogenous."
Could phrase structure / c-commanding in fact be the derivatives of causality?