Yahoo's Live Science just posted an article about scientists using brain imaging to see the neural representation of numbers and patterns of dots in people's brains. I added a comment in the "Buzz Log" about why this could be a really big moment in science, and so I'm copying that here:
This is very, very cool, and could be seen as a breakthrough in cognitive science. The way most psychology works as of today is that the scientist thinks of a pattern that fits data, and then we guess that something like that pattern is what's actually in our minds. But this is because we've had no direct way to see what the mind was doing. We could only see general areas in use before with brain imaging. However, if they can truly see the way the brain is representing certain objects, then that could let us study how those objects are manipulated by the brain, which then let's us stop guessing about the mind and start observing how thought works.